(AV09123) Iowa TV Schooltime: Landmarks in Iowa History- Springdale


It’s TVs full-time Woi TV in association with Iowa State Teachers College presents another program in the Iowa TV school time series landmarks in Iowa history Today’s topic is Springdale your teachers herb Sheikh of Iowa State Teachers College Tuning my banjo here in just a minute You know, I’m tuning the banjo because I want to sing a theme song for this program No other program can make this claim on TV school time, but it has a theme song for an individual program Maybe no other program wants to make that claim but you know, there are many a TV programs which have a theme and as soon as you hear the theme you think of something in connection with the program and that establishes a kind of a Mood for the whole thing So I’m going to sing this to a banjo accompaniment And you see if you can tell what the subject of this program is going to be Listen carefully this won’t take long One thing about a theme song is that it doesn’t last long. If you don’t like music, you don’t have to listen very long That wasn’t very hard have you ever heard that song it sounds something like the Battle Hymn of the Republic doesn’t it? well, this was an old marching song that the soldiers sang during the Civil War and one night, Julia Ward Howe heard this particular song and she Said that’s a good tune for different words and so she wrote different words for the song and The song became known as the Battle Hymn of the Republic same tune But the original words were those that I sang just now Did you hear that spring break just now look at that And do anything more of that Brooke That’s what my voice does to musical instruments. That’s why I don’t sing theme songs oftener well That should give you an idea though about the subject of this program today John Brown’s body lies a molding in the grave. And of course the important name and that is John Brown And it also implies that he died but that his soul goes marching on Now, what does that have to do with? Iowa I’ll tell you what it has to do You see this stone back here This stone Marks the site of the house where John Brown trained some men to march on Harpers, Ferry, Virginia There were 11 men from Iowa who went with John Brown to Harpers Ferry and This was before the Civil War they were determined to free the slave and This particular stone is off in the country near Springdale, Iowa See if I can read what it says on this brass plaque here here was the home of William Maxim a station on the Underground Railroad where John Brown of Osawatomie Recruited and trained 11 men for the attack on Harpers Ferry Now we seem to be a little bit low here today who noticed that I have to look up at that stone That stone is on the level with the road But this is a very narrow country road here in front of the stone And I thought since I was going to be here for a half an hour I would just drive the station wagon into the ditch. I Did that on purpose? There’s a rocky bottom on this ditch here and I can get out very easily I think anyhow, I got in without much trouble so Here we are today in the ditch, and that’s why we’re looking up at this storm If you go to Springdale someday You drive out in the country You don’t have to drive in the like I did but you’ll see this stone Standing near the farm home Mr. Poole wider If the people in Springdale don’t know where the John Bowne marker is you just say How do you get to the full wider farm and they’ll tell you? Well, let’s talk for a minute about John Brown John Brown is a very important name in American history And there are many people who don’t know that John Brown was at one time connected with Iowa history Here is a picture of John Brown Have you ever seen this picture before Or a picture like it If you see this picture and once you’re not likely to forget it because John Brown had a tremendous beard You don’t see beards like that any more these days Takes too long to grow them I guess but John Brown was Called by many names he was called a fanatic. He was called a man who? was crazy They said he was a lunatic And he was called not only John Brown but also Osawatomie Brown because He lived for a time in Osawatomie canvas John Brown himself came from New York State and He came up toward canvas because of the kansas-nebraska Act which had been passed by Congress and which declared that The people of Kansas might make up their own minds whether they wanted to have slavery or not And of course the people from the south who wanted to make Kansas a slave state Brought a lot of people in from the south so they would vote for slavery and People from the north who wanted Kansas to be a free state Sent people in from the northern states to vote for freedom against slavery And some of John Brown’s son’s six of John Brown’s sons went to Kansas to vote for freedom and to fight for freedom Because what happened was that when these people got together these people from the south and the people from the north the sparks began to fly and there was a lot of fighting in Kansas and Kansas became known as bloody, Kansas and in the course of this fighting one of john, brown’s six sons was killed and two of them were captured by the southern forces and were dragged through the streets behind horses and John Brown became very angry about this and he decided to go out there and do something about it the first time he crossed Iowa was in 1856 he was on his way to gather arms and ammunition and to move into Kansas and establish freedom by force and many of these rifles that he was able to buy in the east were stored for a time in a barn in Tabor Iowa and Then John Brown also became active in helping slaves escape on the Underground Railroad Across Iowa to Canada the Underground Railroad of course was not a real railroad it was called the Underground Railroad because the slave owner in the South said slaves Who are escaping to Canada? Are able to get to Canada as easily as though they were travelling on a railway that runs underground As a matter of fact they were just taken from place to place in sparsely settled parts of the country and they were hidden in barns and in basements and In attics and then at night they would go on to the next place and these places where the slaves would stop Were called stations and the whole system was called the Underground Railroad Well, John Brown For a time had a plan to raise an army and go into Kansas and then he had another idea he decided he would strike a blow at slavery itself in the not in a new state like Kansas but in an older state and so in the winter of 1857 and fifty-eight he came back across Iowa from Tabor and Stopped at Springdale, which was a Quaker community now these Quakers believe that no man should ever be a slave that all men are equal in the sight of God and That no, man should be a master over another man And the Quakers were therefore willing to help John Brown in Helping slaves slaves to escape but they didn’t care much about this idea of raising an army because the Quakers didn’t believe in violence They didn’t believe in fighting. They didn’t believe in bloodshed But in Springdale, John Brown was able to get eleven men together and during this winter he drilled these men in the field around this house that used to stand back here and in the spring he said now when I send you the word I want you to come because we are going to strike a blow for freedom and for freeing the slaves and The slaves then will rise to our call and they will throw off this yoke of bondage and in the summer of 1859 John Brown who was in Ohio at that time sent word to these men in law in Iowa around Springdale and said come at once and Two young men from Springdale Edwin and Barclay copic left their mother Even though she knew she would probably never see them again And even though she was opposed to this idea of violence then she was a good Quaker they left their mother and joined John Brown and On October the 16th 1859 John Brown and 20 men that he had been able to recruit from various places attacked the Arsenal at Harpers, Ferry, Virginia now an Arsenal is a place where guns and ammunition are stored and They were able to capture this Arsenal and they thought now that we have this Arsenal We will be able to take to the slaves come and join us and we will give you guns and you will be able to fight your masters and Establish your freedom. Well, the trouble was that the slaves were afraid to do this. They were frightened and No one came to join John Brown and his twenty men and so a company of Marines under lieutenant robert e lee who later became the leader of the Confederate forces in the Civil War a company of Marines captured John Brown and his men very easily and most of them were hanged John Brown among them But the forces who were opposed to slavery immediately said John Brown’s body lies a molding in the grave but his soul goes marching on and That’s precisely what happened. His soul did go marching on and the the opposition to slavery became stronger and stronger and it ended in the Civil War and as you know the North won that war and The slaves were freed So John Brown’s body? Even though it was lying in the grave still had an influence upon the people who believed as he did That the slaves should be freed Now let me show you a map of Iowa which Indicates where this underground railroad was located. I Told you a moment ago that at one time John Brown had stored rifles and ammunition down here in Tabor C Tabor is down here in the southwest corner of the state and It was also the first point where Slaves would go when they escaped from Missouri because Missouri was a border state and there were many people in Missouri who believed in slavery so the slaves would escape from Missouri go to Tabor and then under cover of darkness and with the help of people who believed in freedom and who believed that slaves should not be subject to White men and two masters they moved across the state Through the wine over here to Grinnell Over to Iowa City and then to Springdale. There’s a spring there. This is where we are today Then they would go either to Davenport or through DeWitt over to Clinton And then up the Mississippi River until they got near Canada and people would help them into Canada where they would be free this was a kind of a Branch line of the Underground Railroad People would come from the central part of the state We will cross here to Cincinnati. Mr. Cincinnati, Iowa not Cincinnati, Ohio Cincinnati, Iowa And across over here to Salem and then to Burlington and then up the river Now the Quakers and the congregation lists who were most active and operating this Underground Railroad Believed that slaves should have their freedom But they were also very honest they didn’t believe in lying and If people would say to them, do you have a slave hidden here? If they ask it as bluntly as that the Quaker might have to say yes But usually tried to avoid having to answer a question like that because as soon as he got word that the officers were in search of a runaway slave they would hurry him on to another place and Sometimes these slaves would be hidden and bottoms of wagons covered with blankets even with sacks of potatoes and things like that and sometimes they would be tied up in sacks and put into boxcars so they look just like produce going to market and they use all kinds of methods of concealing these slaves and helping them to escape and the the people who operated this Underground Railroad The people of these various stations were called conductors as they are on trains today So these were the people? Who helped the slaves and who also befriended John Brown? on his trips across Iowa until John Brown said I Want to strike a blow for freedom by the use of ports, and then the Quakers were not so happy about that They didn’t believe that violence was justified They were willing to help John Brown as long as he was a friend of the Negro and merely helped him to get away from Their masters, but they didn’t believe in helping him When he wanted to fight and he wanted to shed blood except for two or three people From the Springdale neighborhood and the few others in Iowa a total of eleven and all from Iowa went with John Brown and two attacked Harpers Ferry Now there are a number of books that you can read To learn the story of John Brown in greater detail Here is a picture that I thought you might like to see. This is the house Where John Brown’s men spent the winter? Of 1857 and fifty-eight and where they were fed than where they slept While they were waiting for the call To go further east. This is the William Maxon hole. This is no longer standing and this is Marked by this little stone in the background not such a little stone either But this is the William Maxon home It’s too bad. That wasn’t saved because Before the people went east to join John Brown They all wrote their names on the wall and for many years until the house was torn down We could go in the house there and see those names written on the wall historic names Names which identified men who fought for freedom even before the civil war was declared Here is a book called stories of Iowa Which was written by mr. Irving H Hart. I’m sure many of you boys and girls and Some of you teachers will remember. Mr. Hart. We used to go with me on these trips Throughout Iowa to various landmarks And who died and left me to do these programs all by myself If you remember mr. Hart and even if you don’t remember mr. Hart, I’m sure you will enjoy this book Which has 30 stories of IO in it and among these stories is the story of John Brown in Iowa Story called Iowans at Harpers Ferry if you’d like a copy of this Send 50 Cent’s through the radio TV office at the Iowa State Teachers College in Cedar Falls That’s what it costs to print this book. We’re not making a profit on it and Here is the issue of the Iowa magazine for July 1956 It’s the one that has this picture of the white church on the cover and inside There is a story of the Iowa, Underground Railroad The various stations in Iowa on the Underground Railroad You can get this magazine if there are still top is left by writing to the Iowa magazine In Shenandoah Iowa the Iowa magazine Shenandoah, Iowa on the copy of the magazine cost thirty five cents Now I Would like to draw more than one picture this morning because this story of the Underground Railroad and the relationship of Iowa to it Is a very interesting story and one which we sometimes forget The Civil War did not touch Iowa directly so far as battlegrounds are concerned no battle In the Civil War was fought on Iowa soil Next week when we go to Croton down in the southeast corner of the state We will visit the only place in Iowa where Civil War cannonballs actually fell upon Iowa soil But the battle was not fought in, Iowa Iowa furnished many men for the Union Army but no battles were actually fought upon Iowa soil and So sometimes when we read about the Civil War we have an idea that Iowa was a long way from it Well, that isn’t actually the case before the Civil War even began there was activity in behalf of the Negroes here in Iowa and There were many very many Negroes who came to Iowa because they knew this was a free state and it had been a free state ever since it had been admitted to the Union And They knew that they would find friends here in Iowa So the Negroes Would come by any means that they could find Knowing that somewhere and in very many places across the state They would find Quakers members of the Society of Friends Congregation lists all of whom would help them to find their freedom Now of course there were bounties on these slaves The owners of the slaves as soon as they discovered that the slaves had run away would send out handbills saying reward for the return of such-and-such a slave and the slave would be described and Then the peace officers would try to collect this reward Because it was illegal for Property To be taken elsewhere just like stealing something from one person and taking it somewhere else stolen property is Not supposed to be accepted. Of course, the Quakers didn’t recognize the fact that this was Stolen property they didn’t believe that a man could be the property of another man but the sheriff’s the law enforcement officers tried to catch these runaway slaves and they would use whatever means they had at their disposal and quite often these slaves would be Pursued By bloodhounds And there is something Poetically appropriate about using dogs to catch these Runaways Because both dogs and slaves were considered to be animals By the people who only So you see it doesn’t take very much in the way of additional lines To show the attitude many of the slave owners Toward their escaped slaves. They used dogs to chase them Now the The violence which was the result of this was the thing that Got some of the people of Iowa into trouble because they followed John Brown John Brown led these Iowa boys to Harpers Ferry where they Captured Cannon and Rifles and ammunition Which they hoped? they could turn over to slaves and the slaves would then form an army that could throw off this yield of slavery and This is the kind of violence that the Quakers didn’t approve And it should have only one result The man who went with John Brown Were captured And they were captured by The Marines captured by members of our organized fighting forces And here is a Marine Who help to Capture John Brown It’s rather interesting when you read stories about this Capture of John Brown That one of the men who stood in the background and what John Brown being hanged Was a young soldier named John Wilkes Booth? Who six years later was to kill the President of the United States Man, who assassinated Abraham Lincoln he was there at Harpers Ferry when John Brown and some of the Iowa boys were hanging How much time we got left Sam Freeman Well, I think we have time for one more picture when war was finally declared Iowa furnish its full quota of Men for the great conflict There were some Some of these men Who had fought in the Mexican War? And who were experienced soldiers Like this People who knew what fighting was all about And then there were other Men who joined the fighting forces Who just couldn’t Reconcile themselves to having The nation dismembered Because the South wanted to see seed Then there were adventurers From the Cities and the farms Who joined the army because they thought there would be excitement and then there were also The young men who had to join the army And who were very frightened about the whole thing And who were sure that they would never return alive Well there we have poor representatives of the Iowa fighting forces who joined the Union Army and Who fought on the side that John Brown had established? years before But of course they were fighting this was war this was not just an armed rebellion Next week as I told you earlier. We will go to Croton Until then. Goodbye Today your teacher has been her fake of Iowa State Teachers College landmarks in Iowa History is produced for Iowa TV school time by WY TV in association with Iowa State Teachers College TV’s full time is presented daily Monday through Friday at 10:30 a.m. By the Iowa joint committee for educational television

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