LIFE BEYOND: Chapter 1. Alien life, deep time, and our place in cosmic history (4K)

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Protocol Labs Follow your curiosity. Lead humanity forward. Two possibilities exist: Two possibilities exist: either we
are alone in the universe, Two possibilities exist: wither we are alone
in the universe, or we are not. Both are equally terrifying. Arthur C. Clarke In all of time on all the planets of
all the galaxies in space what civilizations have risen, looked into the night, seen what we see, asked the questions that we ask? Are we alone? Is Earth the only chapter in the story of life? The answers lie somewhere in
distant space – and distant time. For the first time, the truth is finally within our reach. The search will reveal who we are and who we might become. LIFE BEYOND CHAPTER I CHAPTER I
The Dawn In the search for life out there, we must
first look inward. What we see around us is staggering complexity. How is it possible? What does it take to create life? Living organisms are created by chemistry. We are huge packages of chemicals. And what are the ideal conditions for chemistry? Well, first, you need energy. I -) ENERGY
e.g. Sunlight, Geothermal Heat But not too much. What you want is just the right amount and
planets turns out is just right, because it is close to stars, but not too close. You also need: a great diversity of
chemical elements. II -) HEAVY ELEMENTS
e.g. Oxygen, Carbon, Sulfur And, you need liquid, such as water. III-) LIQUID: e.g. Water. Why? Well, is gases, atoms move past each other
so fast that they can’t hitch up. In solids, atoms stuck together. They can’t move. In liquids… They can cruise and cuddle and link up,
to form molecules. Liquid water is just so good for getting
evolution going. Molecules can dissolve in the water and form
more complex chains. Now, where do you find such
goldinlock conditions? Well, planets are great, and our early Earth was almost perfect. EARTH
4 BILLION YEARS AGO It was just the right distance from its star
to contain huge oceans of liquid water. And deep beneath those oceans, at
cracks in the Earth’s crust, fantastic chemistry began to happen:
atoms combined in all sorts of exotic combinations. The exact recipe is still a mystery,
but the ingredients for life are simple – energy, organic
molecules, and liquid water. Somewhere in the seas of early
Earth, basic chemistry became biology – perhaps even more than once. The first cells were likely born in
hot volcanic waters, in conditions once thought impossible for biology. The closer we study life, the more extreme
places we find it thriving. Here on our planet, microbes have adapted
to survive the most hostile conditions. Arid deserts, the frozen Himalayas,
in trenches under thousands of tons of pressure in the ocean deeps. In the vacuum of a space simulator,
life forms, have been flourishing for years, without oxygen. New research suggests that life
emerged over 4 billion years ago, when Earth was an alien and deadly place. The planet was ravaged by intense volcanism and an asteroid storm that lasted 100 million years. Yet even in these extreme conditions,
life quickly found a foothold. Very very quickly, as soon as the Earth
cooled off after its formation, we know that life began here. Because it happened quickly here on Earth,
we think it will gonna happen quickly on other planets as well. The story of Earth give us hope that
life could be universally common. It teaches us that life is fast acting, tenacious, and made of basic, common ingredients. After 4 billion years of isolation, the search for our cosmic kin has finally begun. Where there is water, there is life – and so
our best chance is to look for ocean worlds like Earth. Our search for Earth-like planets has
only just begun, and the findings are tantalizing. KEPLER-62F: Distance: 1200 Light Years. Size: 1.4x Earth. Temperature: ≥ -85ºF. Age: ~7 billion years.
Possible Water World TRAPPIST-1D: Distance: 41 Light Years. Size: 0.77x Earth. Age: ~7.5 billion years. Temperature: ≥ 20ºF.
Possible Water World TEEGARDEN-B: Distance: 12 Light Years.
Size: 1.07x Earth. Age: 2.5 billion years. Minimum temperature: ≥ 20ºF.
Possible Water World K2-18B: Distance: 111 Light Years.
Size: 2.7x Earth. Temperature: -100 -116ºF. Confirmed
atmospheric water vapor We have barely scratched the surface.
Nature’s trove of secrets is bottomless. We know that the galaxy is awash in water. It’s awash in organic molecules,
and complex chemistry. All of the things that we know are
necessary for life to begin on this planet exist on abundance throughout the galaxy. Did something similar to what
happened on our own planet happened on those other planets? Looking at the raw numbers, the
existence of alien life seems almost inevitable. The latest data suggest that up to 1/4 of
stars have rocky planets orbiting in their habitable zone – the right
distance for liquid water. In our Milk Way galaxy alone,
that’s ~50 billion worlds like Earth. In the entire universe, the possible number of habitable planets is staggering: 100,000,000,000,000,000,000. Imagine each flash of light represents
an Earth-like planet. You would have to watch this animation for over a billion years to view them all. Each one with a history as rich
and unique as Earth. Trillions and trillions of chemical
soups, stewing for eons. There are more habitable Earth-mass planets
in the observable volume of the universe than there are grains
of sands in all the beaches on Earth. Among this abundance of worlds,
many will be deadly to life as we know it. There will be planets in the habitable zone that are
scorched, frozen, and suffocated by poison gases. Many will lack and atmosphere, critical for temperature regulation, or have one that is deadly. Venus, once thought to potentially support life,
is now sterilized by a crushing, toxic atmosphere. But life may not be confined to the habitable zone. Far from the warmth of their star, the moons
of giant gas planets may be hidden oases for life. Their energy comes not from
starlight, but from gravity – the lurching push and pull of the host planet. Icy Enceladus has it all: a huge subsurface ocean with hydrothermal vents spewing
the chemistry of life. Titan is especially alluring –
larger than Mercury and speckled with methane lakes
and organic compounds. In 2026, NASA plans to send a drone to Titan,
seeking out signs of life in its valleys and craters. There may be 100 trillion exomoons in our galaxy alone – 100 times the number of planets. Some may even be Earth sized,
with atmospheres and surface water. With so many places to find life, it seems only a matter of time before we make a discovery. Some think we already have. On June 30, 1976, the Viking lander on Mars
found something that still remains unexplained. After being injected with nutrients, Martian sol samples expelled signature radioactive gas – just like soils from Earth. STERILIZED SOIL – CALIFORNIA SOIL – MARTIAN SOIL Was this signal a natural phenomenon, or our first
encounter with alien biology? The discovery of just one bacteria on Mars,
or any other body of the Solar System would indicate that the whole chain
of evolution’s: cosmic, chemical and biological, is at work everywhere. In that case, the creation of life
anywhere in the universe would be more the rule, than the exception. If we haven’t found life already,
it may not be long until we do. NASA scientists now think we are
on the verge of discovery. Within all of our lifetimes we’re going to understand that there is life on other bodies in the Solar System. We’re going to understand the implications
of that for evolution of life here on Earth. We’re going find planets around other
stars that we can say: we see potential signs of habitability
on their atmospheres. That’s all going to happen in the
next 10 to 20 years. How exciting is that? We are on the verge of things that the people have wondered about for millennia: “Are we alone?” And here we are on the verge of finding that out!! If we do find life out there, what will we
discover about ourselves? What chapter is Earth in the story of life? The universe is nearly 14 billion years old. And our galaxy is something
like 12 billion years old. So, there could be life out there
that could be dramatically more advanced than the life that we have here on this planet. Is Earth a latecomer on the cosmic stage? Just how ancient could life be? For its first few million years, the cosmos was too hot for life as we know it. The ambient temperature would
have boiled you alive. When it was finally cool enough for life, there were no stars and planets. Only huge lumbering clouds of hydrogen. After 70 million years, gravity took
hold of these clouds and spun them into the first generation of stars. The first stars were massive and bright,
but there was no life to watch them rise. Vital heavy elements were still being
forged in their hot stellar cores. Not even the big bang was hot enough
to create them. The only elements that were created
on the big bang were hydrogen, helium and a little bit of lithium. All the stuff that makes you life livable –
those elements weren’t created on the big bang. The only place they were created is
in the firely core of star and the only way to get them into your body… Is if the stars were king enough to explode. The explosive death of the first mid-sized stars
seeded the cosmos with the ingredients for life.>From their ashes rose a second
generation of suns – this time with rocky planets dancing around them. This is the moment: the raw ingredients for life together for the first time, ~13.7 billion years ago. Some believe the conditions for life existed even earlier, in the warm afterglow of creation. As the heat from the big bang faded,
the universe passed through a goldilocks era. Some 15 million years after time began,
the ambient temperature reached a balmy 75º F. For millions of years, it was warm in all directions,
like an endless summer day on Earth. In theory, stars and planets could
have formed this early on, in hypothesized ultra-dense regions of space. If such regions existed, liquid water could
have flowed abundantly, even on rogue planets far from any star. Could this have been dawn of life?
Alien beings feeding off the heat of the big bang? Somewhere out there may be a planet with life
nearly as old as the universe itself. With a 10 billion year head start, the
universe could be teeming with life far more advanced than our own. Despite decades of searching, no sign of alien life
has ever been confirmed, intelligent or otherwise. So where is everybody? Could we really be alone? Maybe primitive life is common, but
intelligence is exceedingly rare. Maybe space is just too vast for
feasible communication. Or maybe we are the first. Could we be the opening chapter in a
sprawling history of life? The universe is young, and the vast majority
of planets have yet to be born. The ingredients for life will be stewing
for another 100,000,000,000,000 years.>From this perspective, we are the dawn:
the opening melody in a symphony of life. Life on Earth

Last star dies: ~100 trillion years What might come long after us? Red dwarf stars can live up to 10 trillion years,
bathing their planets in starlight for eons. Life is much more probable on these time scales, where conditions are stable for
vast periods of time. Any beings living close to these stars
would have to contend with violent solar flares that continually
threaten extinction. Many of these planets would be
tidally locked – one side permanently exposed to the sun, the other frozen in darkness. But as Earth has taught us, life is
remarkably adaptable. What forms might life take when it has
trillions of years to evolve? One day, somehow, the story of
life will come to an end. If we are the first chapter of that story, we have the chance to carry the torch of life far into the future. And if biology does persist far into the future,
then we live in a privileged moment. In later chapters, the universe
will seem far different. The expansion of spacetime will make distant stars invisible, and the night skies will go dark. Perhaps life in the far future will wonder: What it was like to live in the universe’s
brilliant early days? We are lucky enough to know the answer. All we have to do is look up. Hand crafted by Melodysheep LIFE BEYOND Next on Life Beyond: Making contact
with intelligent life. Surviving the end of the universe.
The physics of alien life & more Subtitles by the community


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